Means abnormal narrowing of a passageway in the body. At BVI, this typically refers to narrowing in the breathing passage, such as for stenosis in the glottic, subglottic, or tracheal areas. Stenosis in the airway can be the result of a breathing tube, external trauma, prior tracheotomy, surgical resection of part of the airway for tumor, or other causes. Persons with airway stenosis will note a reduced capacity for exercise. Often the clinician hears noisy breathing on inhalation, especially when the patient is asked to fill the lungs quickly. Esophageal stenosis gives symptoms of difficulty swallowing solids more so than liquids.

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