A benign neurological disorder in which twisting and repetitive or sustained but unwanted muscle contraction occurs in a body part. Dystonia can affect a specific muscle causing focal dystonia, a region of the body (regional dystonia), or even the body as a whole (generalized dystonia). Common focal dystonias include laryngeal (spasmodic dysphonia); ocular (blepharospasm); neck or cervical (torticollis and related neck disorders); and limb dystonia (writer’s cramp). Treatment for focal dystonias is most commonly via Botox™ injection into affected muscles, and occasionally by selective denervation. More regional and generalized dystonias may respond to a variety of systemic medications such as clonazepam and others.
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