Carcinoma in situ (CIS)

A lesion comprised of “cancer cells” but with those cells limited to the lining mucosa and without evidence of extension to adjacent structures. In other words, there is no sign of invasion beyond the mucosa. CIS is typically a localized and highly curable precursor to invasive cancer. CIS is sometimes called intraepithelial carcinoma. In laryngology, this entity is found primarily on the vocal folds themselves, where a tiny, early lesion can change the quality of the voice. In other locations, CIS would ordinarily be “silent.”

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